Since majority of programming languages are based on Object-Oriented Programming or OOP, it is imperative for all professional programmers to learn it thoroughly. Indeed, as a software engineer, you need to understand and use key concepts and methodologies required to perform quality object-oriented software engineering.
OOP and Software Design Tasks
You need to understand and use practical techniques such as use-case and Class Responsibility Collaborator or CRC analysis, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagramming, and patterns. The following are a few tasks related to OOP and software design:
- Extracting requirements of a system using a use-case driven approach
- Leveraging the experience of experts by applying analysis and design patterns
- Defining a set of extensible, reusable software classes (a class library) for the problem domain
- Building interaction diagrams that define the interactions among the objects that are required to achieve the desired system behavior
- Defining a set of candidate classes that suitably model a problem domain
- Establishing metrics, peer reviews and heuristics to improve the quality of the object models
- Effectively documenting all phases of the software process using UML
- Applying an iterative and incremental approach to construction of software systems and components
How OOP Works
OOP is based on objects and the behavior associated with those objects, which often represent components in the real world. OOP objects can modify the data fields of said object through its methods. Moreover, the objects are instances of classes, which can interact with each other, once again through functions. An object, in an OOP, encapsulates data and its functions. This data is hidden from other objects, and therefore can only be altered through a method or function. A class is sort of template for making objects of itself, ie. instances.
As an application developer, you need to apply object oriented analysis during software development to improve software designs and to understand how software objects can be altered to build software systems that are more robust and less expensive. During software development, you will use several methods for analyzing software systems, finding and refining useful classes and relationships between objects regardless of programming languages you may use.
Practical OOP and Software Engineering Topics
As a software engineer you need to learn the most practical analysis and design methods, including the application of use case analysis, CRC analysis, problem domain analysis, activity diagramming, interaction diagramming, and class diagramming. Lastly, it is very important to know the practical aspects of project management and implementation from the perspective of experienced object system designers. The following are 10 major topics for practical OOP and software engineering.
1- The Object Paradigm
2- Managing and Participating in the OOA & D Approach
3- Diagramming & Notational Techniques Using the UML
4- Requirements and Analysis Phase
5- Design Phase
7- Design Refinement
8- Project Management and Implementation Issues
9- OO Languages and Tools
10- Advanced Design Concepts
11- Persistent Object and Database Issues
Summary and Additional Notes
Now that you’ve learned the main topics related to OOP and software engineering, you need to understand what coding languages, programming platforms or frameworks use OOP. As a web developer, you can use PHP with OOP or apply OOP to a Content Management System like WordPress, Joomla, or Drupal. As mobile App developer, you can use it along with Java Android or Swift. As a software engineer, you can use OOP in Java, Python, C++, C#, .Net, Ruby, and more. Lastly, few coding languages like PHP and Python can be used both as an OOP and procedural coding language.
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